A job is the smallest unit of a planned network of activities. Job is piece of work or may be pieces of work to be done by an individual which lead to a result and becomes part of an activity. It is assigned to a particular person to be done at a particular time.
Job analysis is the process of investigating and analyzing the functions in a work assignment or group of assignment. The resulting facts aids in determining the relation between the condition and requirement of the work and the individual who must do it. The job analysis is a technique for investigating general work assignment or jobs.
Job analysis finds out which is to be done and determine the best method of doing it and the qualification required by a worker to be able to do the job satisfactorily.
The data on the jobs can be collected from the concerned employees, their supervisors and professional job analysts. The job data are obtained from the employees through questionnaires, interview, discussion and observation. The data should include the specific activities, responsibilities, special information needed by the employee, how the work is to be performed, the required working condition and physical demand.
“Work analysis forms the very foundations on which personnel administration rests and on which effective selection depends.” In case of a library, job analysis is the special responsibility of the librarian. Job analysis helps to understand the step-by-step procedure of each operation, time required for each job, professional skill and experience needed for each job and the workflow in the library. If there is any bottleneck, it can be identified, located and rectified. It also helps to understand and fix up the academic qualifications, professional training and expertise for creation of posts and selection of persons for appointment. Thus with the help of job analysis, the librarian can help the authority in the recruitment of right person in the right post.
a) Purpose of Job Analysis: The purpose of job analysis are-
i) To determine the task that comprises the job;
ii) To determine the abilities, skill, knowledge and kind of experience required for carrying out the job;
iii) To get maximum organizational effectiveness;
b) Advantages of Job Analysis: The advantages of job analysis are –
i) Job analysis helps to understand the step by step procedure of each operation, time required for each job and thereby helps to know the work flow in an organization.
ii) Job analysis define labour needs in concern term.
iii) Job analysis spells out the types of workers required for each job i.e. academic qualification, professional skill and experience needed for each job.
iv) It specifies the duties and responsibilities implied in each job;
v) It provides guidelines for providing facilities for education and training of right type of personnel for each type of business or industry, etc.
vi) It provides a scientific base for fixing wages and salaries of various types of jobs and employees because it takes into account the mental and physical skill, efforts and risks involved in each type of job.
vii) It assists in organizational planning and provides coordination.
viii) It helps experimenting modern devices like time and motion studies, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and operation research which are instrumental in increasing overall efficiency and productivity